An independent review in 2017 found that the church's hierarchy, notably former Archbishop of Canterbury George Carey, colluded in concealing abuse by Ball over a 20-year period. Carey had seven letters from individuals and relatives after Ball was cautioned by police in 1992 but passed only one (of least concern) on to the police. Carey did not put Ball on the "Lambeth List" of clergy whose suitability for the ministry is questioned. Concealing abuse was given higher priority than helping victims. The review stated that "The church appears to have been most interested in protecting itself. " It also said that "progress [towards dealing satisfactorily with claims of abuse in the Church of England] has been slow and continuing, faster improvement is still required". Justin Welby, Archbishop of Canterbury, said that the church "colluded and concealed" instead of trying to help "those brave enough to come forward", and asked Carey to step down from his role assisting the Bishop of Oxford. Rowan Williams was also criticised.